Geranium Essential Oil (Pelargonium graveolens)
Geranium may also be referred to as Rose geranium, Sweet scented geranium, Old fashion rose geranium, and Rose-scent geranium, geranium - South Africa, Pelargonium asperum, Pelargonium X asperum. It is typically processed in Mediterranean region using steam or hydro distillation as a method for extracting oil from the leaves.
Geranium is a genus of 422 species of flowering annual, biennial, and perennial plants that are commonly known as the cranesbills. It is found throughout the temperate regions of the world and the mountains of the tropics, but mostly in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. The long, palmately cleft leaves are broadly circular in form. The flowers have 5 petals and are colored white, pink, purple or blue, often with distinctive veining. Geraniums will grow in any soil as long as it is not waterlogged. Propagation is by semi-ripe cuttings in summer, by seed, or by division in autumn or spring.
Geranium Essential Oil rightfully holds a beautiful reputation as an essential oil that is especially well suited for women. It's supportive to the reproductive system, menstrual cycle and during the course of menopause. Its benefits, however, don't just end there. It's a wonderful essential oil for use in balancing the skin's production of sebum and in helping with acne. Geranium Essential Oil is astringent, and it can also be helpful with hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Refer to the Uses selection below for more benefits and uses.
- Great for soothing burns and patches of sore skin.
- Speeds the healing of bruises.
- Aids blood flow.
- Helps to balance the production (or over-production) or sebum.
- Uplifts and balances the mind.
- Wounds, acne, bruises, minor burns, dermatitis, eczema, ulcers, hemorrhoids, head lice, ringworm, sebum balacing, urinary and liver tonic.
Floral Fresh Fruity Green Herbaceous Sensual Slightly citrus Sweet
- Common Name(s): Rose geranium, Sweet scented geranium, Old fashion rose geranium, and Rose-scent geranium, geranium - South Africa, Pelargonium asperum, Pelargonium X asperum
Synonyms(s) for Pelargonium graveolens: Geraniospermum terebintaceum, Geranium graveolens, Hoarea intermixta, Pelargonium asperum, Pelargonium intermedium, Pelargonium terebintaceum
- Botanical Family: Geraniaceae
- Botanical Genus: Pelargonium
- Chemical Family: Esters, Monoterpenols
- Major Compounds: Citronellol, Geraniol, Linalol, Citronellyl formate, Isomenthone, 10-epi-Gamma-Eudesmol, Geranyl Formate
- Perfumery Note: Middle
- Consistency: Thin
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Very Strong
- Color: Clear to Pale Yellow/Green
- Countries of Production: Mediterranean region
- Indigenous Country: South Africa
- Cultivation: Distiller is Certified Organic
- Processing Methods: Steam or Hydro Distillation
- Part Typically Used: Leaves
- Shelf Life: 5 years
- Ethically and sustainably sourced
- Not recommended or safe if pregnant or nursing
- Not recommend or safe for children
Benefits & Uses
May be benefitial for addressing the following ailments:
Anxiety Autoimmune Diseases Bruises Cellulite Circulatory Disorders Deodorant Depression Eczema Emotional Crisis Endometriosis Fatigue Feet : Tired & Aching Frigidity / Impotence Gynaecological Conditions Hair : Damaged Head Lice Hemorrhoids Infertility Insect Repellents Insomnia Menopausal Symptoms Menstruation : Cramp ( Dysmenorrhea ) Menstruation : Excess ( Menorrhagia ) Neuralgia Premenstrual Syndrome Reynaud's disease Ringworm Scar Tissue Sebum Balancing Sedative Sinusitis Skin : Dermatitis Skin : Dry Skin : Oily Spots ( Acne ) Stress Stretch Marks Sun Burn : Mild Ulcers Varicose Veins Wounds
Benefits of Geranium:
Female reproductive disorders, menstrual cramps, infertility, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal symptoms, circulatory disorders, Reynaud's disease, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, neuralgia, nervous skin disorders, depression, fatigue, emotional crisis, stress-related conditions.
Therapeutic Benefits of Geranium:
Analgesic Anti-anxiety Anti-bacterial Anti-depressant Anti-inflammatory Anti-microbial Anti-septic Anti-spasmodic Anti-viral Cicatrisant Deodorant Diuretic Haemostatic Hormone Balancer Insect Repellent Sedative Styptic Tonic Vermifuge
Other Uses for Geranium:
- Use Geranium oil in an aromatherapy steam facial to beautify skin.
- Add a drop to your moisturizer for a smoothing effect.
- Geranium essential oil is great for both dry and oily hair. Apply a few drops to your shampoo or conditioner bottle, or make your own deep hair conditioner.
- Diffuse Geranium oil aromatically for a calming effect.
Cautions & Safety
Cautions when using Geranium:
Don't use rose geranium oil during pregnancy.
Tisserand and Young caution that a drug interaction may occur if using drugs metabolized by CYP2B6. They indicate that the Geranium Oil possesses a low risk of skin sensitization and recommend a dermal maximum of 17.5%. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 293.]
Safety Precautions for Geranium:
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
Energetic, Spiritual, and Emotional Qualities
Energetics and Chakras Qualites of Geranium:
2nd Chakra - Relationships 6th Chakra - Perspective Balancing Clarity Creation Energy Protective Purifying Uplifting
Geranium Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.
- PubMed: Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.
- PubMed: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.
- PubMed: Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.
- PubMed: The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.
- PubMed: A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine.
- PubMed: Changes in growth, essential oil yield and composition of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) as affected by growing media.
- PubMed: Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.
- PubMed: Effect of plant secondary compounds on in vitro methane, ammonia production and ruminal protozoa population.
- PubMed: Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds.
- PubMed: Bioactivity-guided investigation of geranium essential oils as natural tick repellents.
- PubMed: Antioxidant properties of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her essential oil on the reproductive damage induced by deltamethrin in mice as compared to alpha-tocopherol.
- PubMed: Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.
- PubMed: Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations.
- PubMed: Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from Pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia.
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L.
- PubMed: Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.
- PubMed: Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
- PubMed: Identification and quantification of dimethylamylamine in geranium by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
- PubMed: Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.
- PubMed: Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
- PubMed: Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.
- PubMed: Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens for the treatment of denture stomatitis.
- PubMed: Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients.
- PubMed: Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin by Pelargonium graveolens essential oil against selected uropathogens.
- PubMed: Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.
- PubMed: In vitro synergistic antibacterial action of certain combinations of gentamicin and essential oils.
- PubMed: Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).
- PubMed: Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites.
- PubMed: In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.
- PubMed: Green Synthesis of Small Silver Nanoparticles Using Geraniol and Its Cytotoxicity against Fibrosarcoma-Wehi 164.
- PubMed: Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.
- PubMed: Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.
- PubMed: 'Buchu' -Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): a review.
- PubMed: The inhibition of Candida species by selected essential oils and their synergism with amphotericin B.
- PubMed: Antibacterial effect of some essential oils administered alone or in combination with Norfloxacin.
- PubMed: Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.
- PubMed: [Study on antioxidant activity of essential oils and its monomer from Pelargonium graveolens].
- PubMed: Antifungal effects of herbal essential oils alone and in combination with ketoconazole against Trichophyton spp.
- PubMed: Immobilization of biogenic gold nanoparticles in thermally evaporated fatty acid and amine thin films.
- PubMed: Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.
- PubMed: Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.
- PubMed: Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens).
- PubMed: Purification and characterization of a cationic isoperoxidase from scented-geranium.
- PubMed: Characterization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) chloroplast EF-Tu cDNA.
- PubMed: An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her) for potential use by resource-limited animal owners.
- PubMed: An efficient in vitro procedure for micropropagation and generation of somaclones of rose scented Pelargonium.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.
- PubMed: Conversion of citronellyl diphosphate and citronellyl beta-D-glucoside into rose oxide by Pelargonium graveolens.
- PubMed: [Studies on the antitumor constituents of Pelargonium graveolens].
- PubMed: Biosynthesis of geraniol and nerol and beta-D-glucosides in Pelargonium graveolens and Rosa dilecta.