Oakmoss Absolute (Evernia prunastri)
Oakmoss Absolute may also be referred to as oakmoss lichen or staghorn lichen. It is typically processed using solvent extracted as a method for extracting oil from the moss/lichen.
Aromatically, Oakmoss Absolute is a base note that possesses a very deep, earthy aroma. Its primary benefit lies within its use as a natural fixative within perfumery and natural fragrancing applications. Within the scope of natural fragrancing, a fixative is an ingredient that helps to stabilize and prolongue the aroma.
- Aroma Description:
- Common Name(s): oakmoss lichen or staghorn lichen
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Synonyms(s) for Evernia prunastri: Evernia herinii, Evernia prunastri f. herinii, Evernia prunastri f. retusa, Evernia prunastri var. herinii, Evernia prunastri var. stictoceros, Evernia retusa, Evernia stictoceros, Lichen prunastri, Lichen stictoceros, Lobaria prunastri, Parmelia mollis var. prunastri, Parmelia prunastri, Parmelia prunastri var. retusa, Physcia prunastri, Physcia prunastri var. stictocera, Platysma prunastri, Ramalina prunastri, Ramalina thrausta f. arenaria
- Botanical Family: Parmeliaceae
- Botanical Genus: Evernia
- Major Compounds: Methyl B-orcinolcarboxylate, Ethyl Everninate, Ethyl Hematonmate, Ethyl Chlorohematommate
- Perfumery Note: Base
- Consistency: Medium - Thin
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium
- Color: Dark Brown
- Processing Methods: Solvent Extracted
- Part Typically Used: Moss/Lichen
Cautions & Safety
Safety Precautions for Oakmoss Absolute:
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, readEssential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
Oakmoss Absolute Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: Magnetic properties and element concentrations in lichens exposed to airborne pollutants released during cement production.
- PubMed: Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy.
- PubMed: Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).
- PubMed: Phytase activity in lichens.
- PubMed: Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by lichen transplants: Comparison with gas-phase passive air samplers.
- PubMed: Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.
- PubMed: Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.
- PubMed: Biomonitoring urban air pollution using transplanted lichens: element concentrations across seasons.
- PubMed: Can ammonia tolerance amongst lichen functional groups be explained by physiological responses?
- PubMed: Biological effects of ammonia released from a composting plant assessed with lichens.
- PubMed: Patch testing with serial dilutions and thin-layer chromatograms of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.
- PubMed: Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures: clinical and experimental data and consideration of structure-activity relationships.
- PubMed: Results of patch testing with fragrance mix 1, fragrance mix 2, and their ingredients, and Myroxylon pereirae and colophonium, over a 21-year period.
- PubMed: Antigenotoxic potencies of a lichen species, Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae lichens and their major metabolites as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
- PubMed: Physiological response of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. to ecologically relevant nitrogen concentrations.
- PubMed: Contact sensitization to tree moss (Evernia furfuracea extract, INCI) is heterogeneous.
- PubMed: Assessment of air pollution genotoxicity by RAPD in Evernia prunastri L. Ach. from around iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey.
- PubMed: Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.
- PubMed: Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.
- PubMed: Behaviour of different lichen species as biomonitors of air pollution by PAHs in natural ecosystems.
- PubMed: Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru)--a retrospective study.
- PubMed: Fragrance allergens in 'specific' cosmetic products.
- PubMed: Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.
- PubMed: Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.
- PubMed: Accumulation of nitrogen and changes in assimilation pigments of lichens transplanted in an agricultural area.
- PubMed: Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.
- PubMed: Time- and dose-dependency of the effects of nitrogen pollution on lichens.
- PubMed: The cell recognition model in chlorolichens involving a fungal lectin binding to an algal ligand can be extended to cyanolichens.
- PubMed: Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis.
- PubMed: Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).
- PubMed: The integrity of lichen cell membrane as a suitable parameter for monitoring biological effects of acute nitrogen pollution.
- PubMed: Do polyamines alter the sensitivity of lichens to nitrogen stress?
- PubMed: Is a low content in atranol/chloroatranol safe in oak moss-sensitized individuals?
- PubMed: Atopic dermatitis and allergic reactions to individual fragrance chemicals.
- PubMed: Studies about the adsorption on lichen Evernia prunastri by enthalpimetric measurements.
- PubMed: Enzymatic production of atranorin: a component of the oak moss absolute by immobilized lichen cells.
- PubMed: Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.
- PubMed: A biological method to monitor early effects of the air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy.
- PubMed: Elemental levels in tree-bark and epiphytic-lichen transplants at a mixed environment in mainland Portugal, and comparisons with an in situ lichen.
- PubMed: Frequency of allergic contact dermatitis to isoeugenol is increasing: a review of 3636 patients tested from 2001 to 2005.
- PubMed: Fragrance ingredient labelling in products on sale in the U.K.
- PubMed: Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants.
- PubMed: Lichen diversity and lichen transplants as monitors of air pollution in a rural area of central Italy.
- PubMed: A Lichen Lectin Specifically Binds to the alpha-1,4-Polygalactoside Moiety of Urease Located in the Cell Wall of Homologous Algae.
- PubMed: Effects of NO2 and NH3 from road traffic on epiphytic lichens.
- PubMed: Lichen-based biosensor for the determination of benzene and 2-chlorophenol: microcalorimetric and amperometric investigations.
- PubMed: Concanavalin A binds to a mannose-containing ligand in the cell wall of some lichen phycobionts.
- PubMed: Cytochemical location of urease in the cell wall of two different lichen phycobionts.
- PubMed: Secreted arginases from phylogenetically farrelated lichen species act as cross-recognition factors for two different algal cells.
- PubMed: Nitrogen uptake in relation to excess supply and its effects on the lichens Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.
- PubMed: (22S)-6-O-acetyl-21betaH-hopane-3beta,6beta,22,29-tetrol from oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).
- PubMed: Contact allergy to oak moss: search for sensitizing molecules using combined bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, GC-MS, and structure-activity relationship analysis.
- PubMed: Cyclic-AMP levels in the lichen Evernia prunastri are modulated by light quantity and quality.
- PubMed: Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.
- PubMed: Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy.
- PubMed: Improvement of the analysis of dansylated derivatives of polyamines and their conjugates by high-performance liquid chromatography.
- PubMed: Separation of polyamines, conjugated to DNA, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
- PubMed: The significance of lichens and their metabolites.
- PubMed: Wind-acclimated thallus morphogenesis in a lichen (Evernia prunastri, Parmeliaceae) probably favored by grazing.
- PubMed: Separation of arginase isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in density gradient column.
- PubMed: Effects of ozone fumigation on epiphytic macrolichens: ultrastructure, CO2 gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence.
- PubMed: Heteropolysaccharides of the lichen Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: Intercomparison of techniques available at INETI in the analysis of two IAEA candidate research materials.
- PubMed: Metal determination by EDXRF in lichens. A contribution to pollutants monitoring.
- PubMed: An unusual glucomannan from Tornabenia intricata.
- PubMed: Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.
- PubMed: Algal partner regulates fungal urease in the lichen Evernia prunastri by producing a protein which inhibits urease synthesis.
- PubMed: [Antibacterial activity of some lichens from southern Spain].
- PubMed: Purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: High performance liquid chromatography of the dansyl derivatives of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine.
- PubMed: Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: The occurrence of lichen phenolics in the photobiont cells of Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis.
- PubMed: An improved method to isolate lichen algae by gel filtration.
- PubMed: Purification and Properties of the Constitutive Arginase of Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: The use of urea by Evernia prunastri thalli.
- PubMed: A Simple Assay Demonstrating the Effect of Rehydration on the Orsellinate Depside Hydrolase Activity of Evernia prunastri.
- PubMed: Extracellular polysaccharidases synthesized by the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
- PubMed: Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus.
- PubMed: Two forms of arginase in Evernia prunastri thallus.
- PubMed: Antioxidant properties of wax from Yugoslavian oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).
- PubMed: Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes.