Lemon Essential Oil (Citrus × limon)
Lemon may also be referred to as Citrus Limonum. It is typically processed using cold pressed/expressed or steam distilled as a method for extracting oil from the citrus rind (peel).
Lemon oil comes from the rind of lemons, the fruit of Citrus limon trees. It has a fresh citrus scent. It has an antiseptic effect.
Lemon Essential Oil has a powerfully fresh traditional lemon fragrance that is quite energizing and uplifting. Lemon Essential Oil is a good choice to diffuse when trying to clear a room of the smell of cigarette smoke or other unpleasant aromas.
- Aroma Description:
- Common Name(s): Citrus Limonum
+ Expand- Collapse
Synonyms(s) for Citrus × limon: Citrus limon var. pompia, Citrus limonelloides, Citrus limonia, Citrus medica f. limon, Citrus medica limonum, Citrus medica subsp. limonum, Citrus medica var. limon, Citrus × aurantium bergamia, Citrus × aurantium bergamia, Citrus × aurantium mellarosa, Citrus × aurantium var. limonum, Citrus × bergamia, Citrus × bergamia subsp. mellarosa, Citrus × bergamota, Citrus × limodulcis, Citrus × limonum, Citrus × mellarosa, Citrus × meyeri, Limon × vulgaris
- Botanical Family: Rutaceae
- Botanical Genus: Citrus
- Chemical Family: Monoterpenes
- Major Compounds: (+)-Limonene, B-Pinene, Gamma-Terpinene, a-Terpineol, a-Pinene, Geranial
- Perfumery Note: Top
- Consistency: Thin
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong
- Aroma chemistry: D-Limonene is a terpene (C10H16) from the monoterpene chemical family and is found in very high percentages in citrus essential oils. Limonene may be one of the most researched chemical components found in essential oils. Limonene has been found to have antioxidant properties. This allows it to counteract the effects of free radicals, which affect DNA mutations and are cancer causing. As an antioxidant, limonene can prevent cell damage and reduce the risk of cancer. Limonene builds up in the tissues, which is a good thing. Limonene is a boost to the immune system. In studies with rats, limonene was proven to produce more antibodies when exposed to foreign antigens. It also has been shown to fight bacteria and reduce allergic reactions. Limonene is effective as a minor pain reliever. Limonene reduced widespread pain in the bones and muscles of mice. Limonene may reduce depression, stress, and anxiety as well as inflammation. D-Limonene is a selective activator of the adenosine A(2A) receptor on cell membranes. These receptors are vital for nervous system function. The lack of their activation is associated with anxiety, insomnia, and impaired dopamine transmission (addictive tendencies and lack of motivation). A lack of activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors on immune cells results in a hyperimmune response (allergic reactions). Limonene is a skin penetration enhancer. It does this by disrupting the cells of the horny layer of the skin, so when it is included in any skin formulation, the formula will be absorbed into the dermis faster and easier. It is a powerful anti-inflammatory. Very helpful in treating arthritis, bursitis, and fibromyalgia Limonene was found to dissolve gallstones in a recent study. It activates several of Phase I and Phase II liver detox enzymes responsible for clearing toxins. The terpenes of d-Limonene literally dissolve fat sludge. Think of it as an internal degreaser! Limonene is also an anti-proliferative --- aka kills cancer cells So, you can see how lemon is a powerfully medicinal oil for the physical, emotional, spiritual and mental bodies. The Citrus oils can contain anywhere between 66 and 95 percent d limonene!
- Color: Pale Yellow to Deep Yellow
- Indigenous Country: Italy or South Africa
- Cultivation: Distiller is Certified Organic
- Processing Methods: Cold Pressed/Expressed or Steam distilled
- Part Typically Used: Citrus Rind (Peel)
- Shelf Life: 2-3 years
- Ethically and sustainably sourced
Benefits & Uses
May be benefitial for addressing the following ailments:
Arthritis Asthma Catarrh Cellulite Colds Colic Fever Flatulence Flu Frigidity / Impotence Gingivitis Gout Hangover Insect Bites Insect Repellents Insomnia Obesity Rheumatism Skin : Oily Skin : Sweaty Sore Throat Spots ( Acne ) Stress Swellings Tantrums Varicose Veins Water Retention Weakness : Lack of Mental or Physical Strength
Therapeutic Benefits of Lemon:
Anti-aging Anti-anxiety Anti-bacterial Anti-depressant Anti-fungal Anti-infectious Anti-oxidant Anti-rheumatic Anti-septic Anti-spasmodic Anti-viral Astringent Carminative Cicatrisant Decongestant Diuretic Haemostatic Immuno-stimulant Liver Supporter Lymph decongest Relaxant Rubefacient Styptic Tonifying
Cautions & Safety
Cautions when using Lemon:
Don't expose the skin to sunlight after using lemon oil.
Cold pressed Lemon Essential Oil is phototoxic. Steam distilled Lemon Oil is not phototoxic. Tisserand and Young recommend a dermal maximum of 2.0% for the cold pressed oil to avoid the risk of a phototoxic reaction. They precaution to avoid topical use of Lemon Oil, regardless of method of distillation, if it has oxidized. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 87, 330-331.]
Lemon Oil may cause skin irritation or sensitivity in some. [Julia Lawless,The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995), 120.]
Safety Precautions for Lemon:
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
Energetic, Spiritual, and Emotional Qualities
Energetics and Chakras Qualites of Lemon:
2nd Chakra - Relationships 3rd Chakra - Personal Power 6th Chakra - Perspective Creation Energy
Lemon Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.
- PubMed: Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.
- PubMed: Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.
- PubMed: Systematic HPLC/ESI-High Resolution-qTOF-MS Methodology for Metabolomic Studies in Nonfluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolites Pathway.
- PubMed: Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.
- PubMed: Identification, synthesis, and characterization of novel sulfur-containing volatile compounds from the in-depth analysis of Lisbon lemon peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon).
- PubMed: Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.
- PubMed: Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.
- PubMed: Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).
- PubMed: Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.
- PubMed: Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.
- PubMed: Developmental stimuli and stress factors affect expression of ClGLP1, an emerging allergen-related gene in Citrus limon.
- PubMed: Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.
- PubMed: Seasonal variations of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from three Citrus limon L. Burm. cultivars.
- PubMed: Spatial and temporal variation in Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population and its damage on lemon.
- PubMed: Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).
- PubMed: [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].
- PubMed: Green synthesized silver nanoparticles for selective colorimetric sensing of Hg2+ in aqueous solution at wide pH range.
- PubMed: Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).
- PubMed: Characterization of a variant of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that triggers a host-specific defense response.
- PubMed: Temporal evolution of ¹³⁷Cs⁺, K⁺ and Na⁺ in fruits of South American tropical species.
- PubMed: Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F].
- PubMed: Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation.
- PubMed: Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.
- PubMed: Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period.
- PubMed: Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.
- PubMed: Cold treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in oranges using a larval endpoint.
- PubMed: Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells.
- PubMed: Effectiveness of different solid-phase microextraction fibres for differentiation of selected Madeira island fruits based on their volatile metabolite profile--identification of novel compounds.
- PubMed: Novel demonstration of RNAi in citrus reveals importance of citrus callose synthase in defence against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.
- PubMed: Host preference and development of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on satsuma mandarin.
- PubMed: Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.
- PubMed: Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.
- PubMed: Non-additive phenotypic and transcriptomic inheritance in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata and C. limon: the case of pulp carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.
- PubMed: Inheritance of characters involved in fruit quality in a citrus interspecific allotetraploid somatic hybrid.
- PubMed: Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
- PubMed: Host involvement in the improved decay control following NaHCO3 co-application with imazalil.
- PubMed: New 4'-substituted flavones from the fruit peels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.
- PubMed: Mass trapping of Prays nephelomima (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in citrus orchards: optimizing trap design and density.
- PubMed: Influence of mitochondria origin on fruit quality in a citrus cybrid.
- PubMed: Citrus chlorophyllase dynamics at ethylene-induced fruit color-break: a study of chlorophyllase expression, posttranslational processing kinetics, and in situ intracellular localization.
- PubMed: Online RPLC-GC via TOTAD method to isolate (+)-methyl epijasmonate from lemon (Citrus limon Burm.).
- PubMed: Involvement of limonene hydroperoxides formed after oil gland injury in the induction of defense response against Penicillium digitatum in lemon fruit.
- PubMed: Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use.
- PubMed: Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles and calli.
- PubMed: Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water.
- PubMed: Isolation of antioxidative phenolic glucosides from lemon juice and their suppressive effect on the expression of blood adhesion molecules.
- PubMed: The role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases in the regulation of carotenoid profiles during maturation in citrus fruit.
- PubMed: Comparison of volatile concentrations in hand-squeezed juices of four different lemon varieties.
- PubMed: Aftermath of the long-term application of sludge and water from a sewage treatment plant to a lemon tree (Citrus limon) plantation.
- PubMed: Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.
- PubMed: Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.
- PubMed: Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during maturation in citrus fruit.
- PubMed: Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.
- PubMed: Chiral separation of diastereomeric flavanone-7-O-glycosides in citrus by capillary electrophoresis.
- PubMed: Copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase from lemon cDNA and enzyme stability.
- PubMed: Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in citrus interploid crosses by means of isozymes, flow cytometry and ISSR-PCR.
- PubMed: Anti-Salmonella activity of medicinal plants from Cameroon.
- PubMed: Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases.
- PubMed: NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase gene expression and isozyme activity during citrus fruit development.
- PubMed: Apoptosis induced by the flavonoid from lemon fruit (Citrus limon BURM. f.) and its metabolites in HL-60 cells.
- PubMed: Identification of coumarins from lemon fruit (Citrus limon) as inhibitors of in vitro tumor promotion and superoxide and nitric oxide generation.
- PubMed: Effects of fruit juices of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L. on experimental hypercholesterolemia in the rat.
- PubMed: Accumulation of Scoparone in Heat-Treated Lemon Fruit Inoculated with Penicillium digitatum Sacc.
- PubMed: Mode of action of plastic film in extending life of lemon and bell pepper fruits by alleviation of water stress.
- PubMed: Growth and metabolic activity of lemon juice vesicle explants in vitro.
- PubMed: Sucrose activation of mitosis in lemon fruit explants (Citrus limon L.).
- PubMed: Mitotic activity in lemon fruit explants (Citrus limon L.) incubated on a calcium-potassium-sucrose medium.
- PubMed: Nucleolar enlargement in lemon fruit explants (Citrus limon L.).
- PubMed: Nucleolar changes in non-growing and growing lemon fruit explants (Citrus limon L.).