Holy Basil Essential Oil (Ociumum tenuiflorum)
Holy Basil may also be referred to as Tulsi , Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum Sanctum Ct Eugenol. It is typically processed using steam or hydro distillation as a method for extracting oil from the leaves and flowers/buds.
Holy Basil Essential Oil is sometimes known as Tulsi Essential Oil. Used extensively in India and within Ayurvedic practices, Holy Basil is grown and distilled for aromatic, medicinal and spiritual purposes.
Aromatically, Holy Basil Essential Oil resembles a cross between traditional Basil Oil and Clove Oil. Holy Basil contains a large percentage (up to 85%) of Eugenol, a chemical constituent that gives Clove Oil its characteristic aroma.
- Aroma Description:
- Common Name(s): Tulsi , Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum Sanctum Ct Eugenol
- Botanical Family: Lamiaceae
- Chemical Family: Phenols, Esters, Monoterpenes
- Major Compounds: Eugenol, 1,8-Cineole, Estragole, B-Bisabolene, (Z)-a-Bisabolene
- Perfumery Note: Top
- Consistency: Thin
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong
- Color: Pale Yellow
- Indigenous Country: United States, India
- Cultivation: Unsprayed / Wild Harvested
- Processing Methods: Steam or Hydro Distillation
- Part Typically Used: Leaves and Flowers/Buds
- Shelf Life: 4 - 5 years
- Not recommended or safe if pregnant or nursing
- Not recommend or safe for children
Benefits & Uses
May be benefitial for addressing the following ailments:
Anxiety Depression Fatigue Headache Menstruation : Cramp ( Dysmenorrhea ) Muscular Inflammation Weakness : Lack of Mental or Physical Strength
Therapeutic Benefits of Holy Basil:
Anti-anxiety Anti-depressant Anti-infectious Anti-inflammatory Anti-spasmodic Disinfectant Energizing Rubefacient Stimulant Stomachic Warming
Cautions & Safety
Cautions when using Holy Basil:
Tisserand and Young suggest a dermal maximum of 1% based on Holy Basil Oil with up to 50.4% Eugenol content. They indicate that Holy Basil Oil may inhibit blood clotting. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 204.]
Safety Precautions for Holy Basil:
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
According to Tisserand & Young, Holy Basil Essential Oil may (oral usage) inhibit blood clotting, cause drug interactions, cause skin & mucous membrane sensitization. Contraindications: May interact with pethidine, MAOIs or SSRIs, anticoagulant medication, major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia & other bleeding disorders. Eugenol belongs to the Phenol chemical family. Phenols are potentially irritating components to the skin and mucous membranes, and they can cause dermatitis and sensitization. If phenols are present in high concentrations in the essential oil, the essential oil should be used in very low dilutions on the skin, diluted well in carrier oil, and only used for short periods of time. Phenol-high oils are skin irritating if used in a bath. Use in small amounts when blending phenol-rich oils for diffusing (no more than 10% of the pure essential oil blend). Phenol-rich oils should not be used on people with skin issues such as dermatitis, or on babies or children. Oils high in eugenol, thymol or carvacrol inhibits platelet aggregation, and are not to be used by people with blood clotting disorders, by people taking anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin or Warfarin, or before surgery. According to Tisserand, Holy basil may inhibit blood clotting, have skin sensitization effects & possible mucous membrane irritation. Suggested maximum topical use of eugenol is 0.5%. In small doses, eugenol can be liver-protective, however, in high concentrations, it is hepatotoxic and can cause tissue damage.
Energetic, Spiritual, and Emotional Qualities
Energetics and Chakras Qualites of Holy Basil:
6th Chakra - Perspective 7th Chakra - Higher Information Clarity Expansive Protective
Holy Basil Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: Antidyslipidemic Effect of Ocimum sanctum Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.
- PubMed: Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract enhances specific cognitive parameters in healthy adult volunteers: A placebo controlled study.
- PubMed: Role of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on dietary supplementation in the transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
- PubMed: Anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in India.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.
- PubMed: Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study.
- PubMed: Simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple bioactive markers in Ocimum sanctum obtained from different locations and its marketed herbal formulations using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS combined with principal component analysis.
- PubMed: Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.
- PubMed: Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract.
- PubMed: Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.
- PubMed: Enhancing chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in vitro activity by Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
- PubMed: Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats.
- PubMed: Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.
- PubMed: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers.
- PubMed: Evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum in experimental models of anxiety and depression.
- PubMed: Antifungal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) on clinically isolated dermatophytic fungi.
- PubMed: Rapid biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum for water electrolysis applications.
- PubMed: Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum.
- PubMed: Lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet.
- PubMed: Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy.
- PubMed: Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of ocimum sanctum in animal models of peptic ulcer.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.
- PubMed: In vivo studies on the effect of Ocimum sanctum L. leaf extract in modifying the genotoxicity induced by chromium and mercury in Allium root meristems.
- PubMed: 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.
- PubMed: Assessment of litter degradation in medicinal plants subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation.
- PubMed: Proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis-associated proteins are molecular targets for chemoprevention of MNNG-induced gastric carcinogenesis by ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.
- PubMed: Modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract (Tulsi) on human lymphocytes against genotoxicants.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid function in the male mouse.
- PubMed: Effect of Ocimum sanctum, turmeric extract and vitamin E supplementation on the salivary gland and bone marrow of radioiodine exposed mice.
- PubMed: Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.
- PubMed: Antifungal activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil and its lead molecules.
- PubMed: Anxiolytic activity of ocimum sanctum leaf extract.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells.
- PubMed: Preliminary psychopharmacological evaluation of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract.
- PubMed: Effect of Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on blood sugar levels, serum lipids and tissue lipids in diabetic rats.
- PubMed: Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders.
- PubMed: Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract provides protection against mercury induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.
- PubMed: Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.
- PubMed: Effect of Ocimum sanctum (OS) leaf extract on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in rats.
- PubMed: Radioprotective effect of leaf extract of Indian medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum.
- PubMed: Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.
- PubMed: In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of traditional medicinal plant Ocimum species against Plasmodium falciparum.
- PubMed: Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum.
- PubMed: Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.
- PubMed: Immunotherapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum (L) in bovine subclinical mastitis.
- PubMed: Quantification of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulasi) and green (Sri Tulasi) varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high-performance thin-layer chromatography.
- PubMed: Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum on oxidant-antioxidant status, cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in a rat forestomach carcinogenesis model.
- PubMed: Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).
- PubMed: Chemopreventive effect of Ocimum sanctum on DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
- PubMed: Chemopreventive action by an extract from Ocimum sanctum on mouse skin papillomagenesis and its enhancement of skin glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulfydryl level.
- PubMed: A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.
- PubMed: Chronic oral administration of Ocimum sanctum Linn. augments cardiac endogenous antioxidants and prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.
- PubMed: Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by botanical extracts of Ocimum sanctum: in vivo and in vitro studies.
- PubMed: Antinociceptive action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanisms involved.
- PubMed: A comparative study of different crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum on noise stress.
- PubMed: Inhibition by an extract of Ocimum sanctum of DNA-binding activity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rat hepatocytes in vitro.
- PubMed: Enhancement of bone marrow radioprotection and reduction of WR-2721 toxicity by Ocimum sanctum.
- PubMed: Protection against radiation-induced chromosome damage in mouse bone marrow by Ocimum sanctum.
- PubMed: Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in animals.
- PubMed: Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures.
- PubMed: Effect of Oxidative Phytochemicals on Nicotine-stressed UMNSAH/DF-1 Cell Line.
- PubMed: Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound healing.
- PubMed: In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum.
- PubMed: Variation of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of some common home remedies with storage time.
- PubMed: Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.
- PubMed: Evaluation of larvicidal and nymphicidal potential of plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Aphis gossypii Glover.
- PubMed: Antimelanoma and radioprotective activity of alcoholic aqueous extract of different species of Ocimum in C(57)BL mice.
- PubMed: Screening for antifeedant and larvicidal activity of plant extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Sylepta derogata (F.) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston).
- PubMed: Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.
- PubMed: Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract of Ocimum leaves on carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and reduced glutathione levels in mouse.
- PubMed: The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.
- PubMed: A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin.
- PubMed: Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm Setaria digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.
- PubMed: Radiation protection by the ocimum flavonoids orientin and vicenin: mechanisms of action.
- PubMed: Randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
- PubMed: In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity of some plant extracts used in folk medicine.
- PubMed: Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.
- PubMed: Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).