Clove Essential Oil (Syzygium aromaticum)
Clove may also be referred to as Clove Tree, Clove Bud, Clove Stem, Tropical Myrtle, Zanzibar Redhead, Cengkih, Chengkeh, Chingkeh, 丁香. It is typically processed using steam or hydro distillation, or co2 select extraction as a method for extracting oil from the flower buds, stems, or leaves.
Clove oil comes from the flower buds and leaves of the Syzygium aromaticum (also known as Eugenia caryophyllata) tree. It has a strong spicy scent. It has an analgesic and stimulating effect. Clove stem and clove leaf essential oils are also available, but essential oil distilled from the buds is generally favored due to its composition and aroma.
Clove Bud Essential Oil generally contains up to 85% Eugenol, a phenol that dramatically contributes to the oil's aroma, therapeutic properties, and safety precautions. Clove Bud Essential Oil is also comprised of a number of other constituents, particularly the sesquiterpene B-caryophyllene and the ester Eugenyl acetate.
Rich Sensual Slightly bitter Slightly spicy Soft Sweet Warm Woody
- Common Name(s): Clove Tree, Clove Bud, Clove Stem, Tropical Myrtle, Zanzibar Redhead, Cengkih, Chengkeh, Chingkeh, 丁香
Synonyms(s) for Syzygium aromaticum: Caryophyllus aromaticus, Caryophyllus hortensis, Caryophyllus silvestris, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, Jambosa caryophyllus, Myrtus caryophyllus
- Botanical Family: Myrtaceae
- Botanical Genus: Syzygium
- Chemical Family: Phenols
- Major Compounds: Eugenol, B-Caryophyllene, Eugenyl Acetate, a-Caryophyllene, Isoeugenol, Methyleugenol
- Perfumery Note: Base/Middle
- Consistency: Medium
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong
- Aroma chemistry: The main chemical family for Clove Bud and Clove Stem Essential Oil and Clove Bud Co2 Select Extract is Phenols. Phenols are terminator oils. They are very powerful and highly anti infectious. The phenolic component that is high in clove is eugenol. Clove Bud Essential Oil had about 80% or so eugenol and about 9% Eugenol acetate. Clove Bud Co2 extract has a bit less eugenol and a bit more Eugenol acetate (20% or so). Clove Stem Essential Oil has a higher amount of Eugenol 92-96% percent and very little Eugenol acetate. Eugenol acetate if a component belonging to the chemical family ester. In general esters are highly anti spasmodic and relaxing.
- Color: Pale Yellow
- Indigenous Country: Madagascar
- Cultivation: Unsprayed and organically grown
- Processing Methods: Steam or Hydro Distillation, or CO2 Select Extraction
- Part Typically Used: Flower buds, stems, or leaves
- Shelf Life: 5 - 8 years
Benefits & Uses
May be benefitial for addressing the following ailments:
Aches Bad Breath Frigidity / Impotence Hair : Damaged Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Indigestion Insect Bites Insect Repellents Insomnia Libido Lice Poor Blood Circulation Scabies
Therapeutic Benefits of Clove:
Analgesic Anti-arthritic Anti-bacterial Anti-cancer Anti-epileptic Anti-fungal Anti-infectious Anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidant Anti-rheumatic Anti-viral Carminative Circulatory stimulant Decongestant Digestive tonic Immuno-stimulant Rubefacient Warming
Other Uses for Clove:
Agarwood Crasna Agarwood Subintegra Ajowain Fruits CO2 Select Extract Organic Amyris Aniseseed Myrtle Balsam Poplar Basil Bergamot Mint Black Pepper Caraway Seed Cardamom Davana Fingerroot Ginger Greenland Moss (Labrador Tea) Ledum Hemp Himalayan Soti Kapoor Kacheri Mandarin Marjoram Palo Santo Peppermint Sandalwood - New Caledonia Snakeweed Turmeric
Cautions & Safety
Cautions when using Clove:
Tisserand and Young indicate that when using Clove Bud Oil, there is moderate risk for mucous membrane irritation, may inhibit blood clotting and pose a drug interaction hazard. It may cause embryotoxicity. There is a moderate risk of skin sensitization, and Tisserand and Young recommend a dermal maximum of 0.5%. They advise not to use topically on children age 2 or younger. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 255.]
This essential oil poses a higher risk of causing irritation and sensitization when used in the bath. Avoid using it in the bath, even if it is solubilized/diluted.
Safety Precautions for Clove:
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
According to Tisserand & Young, Clove Bud Essential Oil (oral usage) may inhibit blood clotting, cause drug interactions, cause skin & mucous membrane sensitization. Contraindications: May interact with pethidine, MAOIs or SSRIs, anticoagulant medication, major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia & other bleeding disorders. Eugenol belongs to the Phenol chemical family. Phenols are potentially irritating components to the skin and mucous membranes, and they can cause dermatitis and sensitization. If phenols are present in high concentrations in the essential oil, the essential oil should be used in very low dilutions on the skin, diluted well in carrier oil, and only used for short periods of time. Phenol-high oils are skin irritating if used in a bath. Use in small amounts when blending phenol-rich oils for diffusing (no more than 10% of the pure essential oil blend). Phenol-rich oils should not be used on people with skin issues such as dermatitis, or on babies or children. Oils high in eugenol, thymol or carvacrol inhibits platelet aggregation, and are not to be used by people with blood clotting disorders, by people taking anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin or Warfarin, or before surgery. According to Tisserand, Holy basil may inhibit blood clotting, have skin sensitization effects & possible mucous membrane irritation. Suggested maximum topical use of eugenol is 0.5%. In small doses, eugenol can be liver-protective, however, in high concentrations, it is hepatotoxic and can cause tissue damage. Maximum dermal level 1.0% (based on 50.4% eugenol content with a dermal limit of 0.5%
Botanical Description of Clove:
The Clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 50 feet tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped clusters. At first the flower buds have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then become a bright red. Now they are ready for harvest. Cloves are usually harvested at 1.5–2.0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball. The clove tree lives a long long life. It is said to be a productive tree for 150 years!
Traditional Folklore of Clove:
The reason that we know about cloves is Marco Polo. He is the one that wrote about cloves in a publication in AD 1928. Actually the name Clove comes from the French word Nail (clou). When you look at the clove bud it does look like a nail. Clove is native to the Maluku or Molucca Islands (often referred to as the Spice Islands, due, in part, to the abundance of clove) in Indonesia. Cloves were traded in the 13th century via the Arabs in Europe. (At this time Venice was the leading source for cloves.) . The Arabs had a monopoly for centuries! Then the Portughese broke that monopoly and had one of their own for over a century. Then came the Dutch. The Dutch were ruthless and to guarantee that their monopoly would live on, the issued a proclamation in 1621 that stated that ll Clove Trees were to be destroyed with the exception of the trees on Ambinia and the adjacent islands, Eventually Clove trees were introduced into Zanzibar( Part of Tanzania) in the 19th century. The very first recorded use of the clove was the Chinese between 220 - 206 BC. They used the clove to sweeten their breath by chewing it. During the Renassaince, Cloves were used to make Pomanders ( a container containing scented herbs) to ward off the plague In the Molucca Islands, a clove tree was planted each time a child was born leading to the abundance of the this spice. It was believed to be imbued with the magical powers of protection, love, and, burned as incense to attract financial abundance. It was thought that burning it as incense would stop others from gossiping about you. It also was used in exorcisms to expel evil spirits.
Energetic, Spiritual, and Emotional Qualities
Energetics and Chakras Qualites of Clove:
1st Chakra - Survival and Support 2nd Chakra - Relationships 4th Chakra - Unconditional Love 6th Chakra - Perspective 7th Chakra - Higher Information Creation Energy Energizing Introspective Protective
Clove Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: Anti-virulence potential of eugenyl acetate against pathogenic bacteria of medical importance.
- PubMed: Safety and anti-ulcerogenic activity of a novel polyphenol-rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L).
- PubMed: Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in the Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron.
- PubMed: Essential Oil of Syzygium aromaticum Reverses the Deficits of Stress-Induced Behaviors and Hippocampal p-ERK/p-CREB/Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression.
- PubMed: Eugenol-rich Fraction of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) Reverses Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in Liver Cirrhosis and Inhibits Hepatic Cell Proliferation.
- PubMed: Herbs and spices: Characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of extracts from a Thai traditional remedy called Kabpi for oral and throat infection and its plant components.
- PubMed: Assessment of Polyphenol Coated Nano Zero Valent Iron for Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Contaminated Waters.
- PubMed: Antioxidant effects of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract used with different extenders on ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation.
- PubMed: The comparative study of antifungal activity of Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum and nystatin on Candida albicans; an in vitro study.
- PubMed: Screening and study of antifungal activity of leaf litter actinomycetes isolated from Ternate Island, Indonesia.
- PubMed: [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].
- PubMed: Anticancer potential of Syzygium aromaticum L. in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines.
- PubMed: Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.
- PubMed: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice.
- PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing properties of two semisynthetic derivatives of oleanolic Acid.
- PubMed: Semi-synthesis of nitrogen derivatives of oleanolic acid and effect on breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells.
- PubMed: Effect of Pakistani medicinal plants on IgE/antigen- and ionophore-induced mucosal mast cells degranulation.
- PubMed: In vitro antimutagenic, antioxidant activities and total phenolics of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed extracts.
- PubMed: Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes.
- PubMed: Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.
- PubMed: Immunomodulatory effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) constituents on macrophages: In vitro evaluations of aqueous and ethanolic components.
- PubMed: Clove extract inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
- PubMed: Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.
- PubMed: Application of solid phase extraction with the use of silica modified with polyaniline film for pretreatment of samples from plant material before HPLC determination of triterpenic acids.
- PubMed: Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
- PubMed: Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of dietary clove (Szyzgium aromaticum) bud powder in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model.
- PubMed: Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.
- PubMed: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria.
- PubMed: Effects of eugenol-reduced clove extract on glycogen phosphorylase b and the development of diabetes in db/db mice.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.
- PubMed: Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.
- PubMed: Ultrasound-assisted extraction and quantitation of oils from Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) with supercritical carbon dioxide.
- PubMed: Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived triterpenes on postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following carbohydrate challenge.
- PubMed: [Optimization of extraction process of prescription of compound Nanxing pain-relieving cataplasm by combining orthogonal design and pharmacodynamic experiment].
- PubMed: Bioactive lipids, radical scavenging potential, and antimicrobial properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil.
- PubMed: Apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes induced by eugenol-rich oil of Syzygium aromaticum.
- PubMed: Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria.
- PubMed: Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice.
- PubMed: Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis.
- PubMed: HPTLC-densitometry determination of triterpenic acids in Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis and Syzygium aromaticum.
- PubMed: In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of Alzheimer disease.
- PubMed: [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].
- PubMed: Transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in guava (Psidium guajava L.) to four Myrtaceae species.
- PubMed: Drug screening for autophagy inhibitors based on the dissociation of Beclin1-Bcl2 complex using BiFC technique and mechanism of eugenol on anti-influenza A virus activity.
- PubMed: In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas.
- PubMed: Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary study.
- PubMed: Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
- PubMed: Investigation of the effectiveness of Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia and Geranium robertianum essential oils in the treatment of acute external otitis: a comparative trial with ciprofloxacin.
- PubMed: Essential oils from clove affect growth of Penicillium species obtained from lemons.
- PubMed: Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract reduces high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through downregulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.
- PubMed: Structure-based design of eugenol analogs as potential estrogen receptor antagonists.
- PubMed: Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.
- PubMed: Screening for Rho-kinase 2 inhibitory potential of Indian medicinal plants used in management of erectile dysfunction.
- PubMed: Anti-arthritic effect of eugenol on collagen-induced arthritis experimental model.
- PubMed: Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived oleanolic acid on glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in the rat small intestine.
- PubMed: Eugenol--from the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: a review of a remarkable and versatile molecule.
- PubMed: Structure-activity relationships of eugenol derivatives against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.
- PubMed: Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.
- PubMed: Aqueous Extract of Dried Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum Inhibits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.
- PubMed: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of prasaprohyai formula and its components against pathogenic bacteria.
- PubMed: The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).
- PubMed: The effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived oleanolic acid on kidney function of male Sprague-Dawley rats and on kidney and liver cell lines.
- PubMed: Thermoluminescence study of polyminerals extracted from clove and marjoram for detection purposes.
- PubMed: Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water extractable phytochemicals from some tropical spices.
- PubMed: Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of plants used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of oral cavity infections.
- PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
- PubMed: Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages.
- PubMed: Biofilm inhibition by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils in the strains of Candida albicans.
- PubMed: Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).
- PubMed: Comparative anticancer potential of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)--an Indian spice--against cancer cell lines of various anatomical origin.
- PubMed: Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.
- PubMed: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of three Indian Spices Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
- PubMed: Polyphenolic compounds in clove and pimento and their antioxidative activities.
- PubMed: Anticariogenic potentials of clove, tobacco and bitter kola.
- PubMed: Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae).
- PubMed: Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.
- PubMed: Hypoglycemic effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and identification of the active ingredients.
- PubMed: Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.
- PubMed: Xerophilic aflatoxigenic black tea fungi and their inhibition by Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum extracts.
- PubMed: In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.
- PubMed: The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.
- PubMed: Effect of medicinal plants on Moraxella cattarhalis.
- PubMed: Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors.
- PubMed: Combination of molluscicides with attractant carbohydrates and amino acids in bait formulation against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.
- PubMed: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.
- PubMed: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables.
- PubMed: Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce.
- PubMed: The effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived oleanolic acid on glycogenic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity in spices and local medicinal plants against clinical isolates of Karachi, Pakistan.
- PubMed: Headspace single drop microextraction coupled with microwave extraction of essential oil from plant materials.
- PubMed: Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.
- PubMed: Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.
- PubMed: Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.
- PubMed: Anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil and eugenol: effects on growth, viability, adherence and ultrastructure.
- PubMed: Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.
- PubMed: Immunohistochemical and quantitative analysis of ghrelin in Syzygium aromaticum.
- PubMed: Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells.
- PubMed: In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.
- PubMed: Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.
- PubMed: Synergistic antihyperglycemic effects between plant-derived oleanolic acid and insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
- PubMed: Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
- PubMed: Rapid biosynthesis of irregular shaped gold nanoparticles from macerated aqueous extracellular dried clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) solution.
- PubMed: Effects of extracts of spices on rumen methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feeds in vitro.
- PubMed: Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.
- PubMed: Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.
- PubMed: Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil.
- PubMed: Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.
- PubMed: Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts against multi drug resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and fungus of clinical origin.
- PubMed: Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.
- PubMed: Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices.
- PubMed: High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the simultaneous determination of three phenolic acids in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry.
- PubMed: Screening of Nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition.
- PubMed: Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata.
- PubMed: Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice.
- PubMed: Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.
- PubMed: Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.
- PubMed: Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.
- PubMed: Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of syzygium aromaticum flower bud in Wistar rats and mice.
- PubMed: Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.
- PubMed: Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes.
- PubMed: Development of flexible antimicrobial films using essential oils as active agents.
- PubMed: Modulatory effect of spice extracts on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination.
- PubMed: Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England.
- PubMed: Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.
- PubMed: Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada.
- PubMed: [Study on determination of metal elements in buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry by ICP-AES].
- PubMed: Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.
- PubMed: Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.
- PubMed: Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.
- PubMed: In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against Aspergillus niger.
- PubMed: Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in quality control and determination of adulteration of African essential oils.
- PubMed: Efficacy of repellent products against caged and free flying Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.
- PubMed: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.
- PubMed: Effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo.
- PubMed: Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.
- PubMed: Flavonoid triglycosides from the seeds of Syzygium aromaticum.
- PubMed: Anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous infusion of cloves on skin carcinogenesis.
- PubMed: Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.
- PubMed: Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.
- PubMed: Antioxidant activity of DHC-1, an herbal formulation, in experimentally-induced cardiac and renal damage.
- PubMed: Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis.
- PubMed: Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.
- PubMed: Protection of oral or intestinal candidiasis in mice by oral or intragastric administration of herbal food, clove (Syzygium aromaticum).
- PubMed: Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors.
- PubMed: An extract of Syzygium aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes.
- PubMed: Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.
- PubMed: Comparative effects of some local food condiments on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity.
- PubMed: Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori.
- PubMed: Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study.
- PubMed: Antimutagenic activity of phenylpropanoids from clove (Syzygium aromaticum).
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.
- PubMed: Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.
- PubMed: Effects of some groundnut packaging methods and protection with Ocimum and syzygium powders on kernel infection by fungi.
- PubMed: Identification of alternatives for the management of foliar nematodes in floriculture.
- PubMed: Inhibition of malonaldehyde formation from blood plasma oxidation by aroma extracts and aroma components isolated from clove and eucalyptus.
- PubMed: Suppression of chemical mutagen-induced SOS response by alkylphenols from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test.
- PubMed: Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene.
- PubMed: Purification and characterization of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. & PERRY.
- PubMed: Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease.
- PubMed: Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.
- PubMed: Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).
- PubMed: Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.
- PubMed: Effect of Syzygium aromaticum extract on immediate hypersensitivity in rats.
- PubMed: Purification and characterization of eugeniin as an anti-herpesvirus compound from Geum japonicum and Syzygium aromaticum.
- PubMed: [Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines].
- PubMed: Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens.
- PubMed: Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with traditional herbs.
- PubMed: Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo.
- PubMed: Inhibitory effects of Oriental herbal medicines on IL-8 induction in lipopolysaccharide-activated rat macrophages.
- PubMed: Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected].
- PubMed: Studies on differentiation-inducing activities of triterpenes.
- PubMed: Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.