Basil Essential Oil (Ocimum basilicum)
Basil may also be referred to as Common Basil, Sweet Basil, Great Basil, Saint-Joseph's-Wort, Genovese Basil, Basil, Sweet, Ocimum Basilicum Ct Linalool. It is typically processed in India using steam distilled or hydro distillation as a method for extracting oil from the leaves and flowers/buds.
Basil oil comes from the leaves and flowers of Ocimum basilicum plants.
- Aroma Description:
- Common Name(s): Common Basil, Sweet Basil, Great Basil, Saint-Joseph's-Wort, Genovese Basil, Basil, Sweet, Ocimum Basilicum Ct Linalool
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Synonyms(s) for Ocimum basilicum: Ocimum album, Ocimum anisatum, Ocimum barrelieri, Ocimum basilicum var. album, Ocimum basilicum var. bullatum, Ocimum basilicum var. densiflorum, Ocimum basilicum var. difforme, Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum, Ocimum basilicum var. majus, Ocimum basilicum var. pelvifolium, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum, Ocimum basilicum var. violaceum, Ocimum basilicum var. violocrispum, Ocimum basilicum var. viridicrispum, Ocimum basilicum var. vulgare, Ocimum bullatum, Ocimum caryophyllatum, Ocimum chevalieri, Ocimum ciliare, Ocimum ciliatum, Ocimum citrodorum, Ocimum cochleatum, Ocimum dentatum, Ocimum hispidum, Ocimum integerrimum, Ocimum lanceolatum, Ocimum laxum, Ocimum majus, Ocimum medium, Ocimum minus, Ocimum nigrum, Ocimum odorum, Ocimum scabrum, Ocimum simile, Ocimum thyrsiflorum, Ocimum urticifolium, Plectranthus barrelieri
- Botanical Family: Lamiaceae
- Botanical Genus: Ocimum
- Chemical Family: Monoterpenols
- Major Compounds: Linalool, Fenchol, Eugenol, Methyl Chavicol, Beta-Caryophyllene
- Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
- Consistency: Thin
- Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium
- Color: Clear
- Countries of Production: India
- Indigenous Country: Nepal
- Cultivation: Unsprayed or organic
- Processing Methods: Steam Distilled or Hydro Distillation
- Part Typically Used: Leaves and Flowers/Buds
- Shelf Life: 5 years
- Ethically and sustainably sourced
Benefits & Uses
May be benefitial for addressing the following ailments:
Fever Flatulence Fleas ( Dogs ) Frigidity / Impotence Hair : Damaged Libido Nausea Nervous Conditions / Tension Obesity Sinusitis Skin : Dermatitis Weakness : Lack of Mental or Physical Strength
Therapeutic Benefits of Basil:
Anti-depressant Anti-septic Anti-spasmodic Carminative Cephalic Cicatrisant Emmenagogic Emmenagogue Energizing Expectorant Immune support Immuno-stimulant Stimulant Stomachic
Other Uses for Basil:
Bergamot Black Pepper Boronia Cardamom Cedarwood, Atlas Cedarwood, Virginian Chamomile, Roman Cistus Clary Sage Coriander Geranium Hyssop Juniper Berry Labdanum Lavender Lemon Lime Linden Blossom Linden Blossom CO2 Extract Total Marjoram Melissa Oakmoss Orange, Sweet Oregano Peppermint Rosemary Sandalwood Verbena, Lemon Ylang Ylang
Cautions & Safety
Cautions when using Basil:
It may irritate sensitive skin.
Use Basil Oil sparingly and with caution. High doses may be carcinogenic especially for those basils that contain a significant amount of methyl chavicol (Eugenole). Tisserand and Young suggest a dermal maximum of 15% if the estragole content does not exceed 0.8%. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 208.]
Avoid Basil Oil during pregnancy. [Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995), 186.]
Safety Precautions for Basil:
According to Tisserand & Young, there is a low risk of skin sensitization with Basil Essential Oil. A dermal maximum level of 1.5% is recommended based on 33.7% eugenol. Generally regarded as a safe & gentle oil.
Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
Energetic, Spiritual, and Emotional Qualities
Energetics and Chakras Qualites of Basil:
4th Chakra - Unconditional Love 7th Chakra - Higher Information Balancing Clarity Expansive Purifying
Basil Articles or Publications:
- PubMed: In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.
- PubMed: Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.
- PubMed: Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.
- PubMed: Cyclodextrin-complexed Ocimum basilicum leaves essential oil increases Fos protein expression in the central nervous system and produce an antihyperalgesic effect in animal models for fibromyalgia.
- PubMed: In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.
- PubMed: Ocimum basilicum: Antibacterial activity and association study with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance.
- PubMed: Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system.
- PubMed: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.
- PubMed: Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).
- PubMed: α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.
- PubMed: Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.
- PubMed: The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.
- PubMed: Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.
- PubMed: Variation in the volatile terpenoids of two industrially important basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars during plant ontogeny in two different cropping seasons from India.
- PubMed: Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.
- PubMed: Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
- PubMed: Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).
- PubMed: Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils.
- PubMed: Chemotaxonomic analysis of the aroma compounds in essential oils of two different Ocimum basilicum L. varieties from Iran.
- PubMed: Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.
- PubMed: Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.
- PubMed: Chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of a plant breeding cultivar of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).
- PubMed: Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.
- PubMed: Pro-oxidant/antioxidant behaviours of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and plant extracts in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid rich oil-in-water emulsions.
- PubMed: Optimisation of microencapsulation of holy basil essential oil in gelatin by response surface methodology.
- PubMed: Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis.
- PubMed: [Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oils].
- PubMed: Effect of the addition of basil essential oil on the degradation of palm olein during repeated deep frying of French fries.
- PubMed: Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.
- PubMed: Toxicity of basil oil constituents and related compounds and the efficacy of spray formulations to Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).
- PubMed: Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediates the Antifibrogenic Action of Ocimum bacilicum Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil against Salmonella enteritidis in vitro and in food.
- PubMed: Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
- PubMed: Safety assessment of ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract in wistar rats: acute and subchronic toxicity studies.
- PubMed: Composition and antimicrobial activities of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols alone and in combination.
- PubMed: Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from basil: effects on poultry.
- PubMed: [Factors influence volatile oil content in Ocimun basilicum introduced from Xinjiang province to south-east China].
- PubMed: Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).
- PubMed: Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia aethiopica.
- PubMed: EFFICIENCY OF PREPARED BAITS OF LONE OR/AND ADMIXED FOUR BOTANICAL OILS ON THE VIABILITY OF SUCCESSIVE RAISED GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER TREATING THE PARENT ONES.
- PubMed: Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice.
- PubMed: TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.
- PubMed: ZnO nanofertilizer and He Ne laser irradiation for promoting growth and yield of sweet basil plant.
- PubMed: Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.
- PubMed: UV-B is required for normal development of oil glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil).
- PubMed: Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.
- PubMed: Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs, and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese.
- PubMed: Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil.
- PubMed: Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum.
- PubMed: Comparative volatile oil composition of four Ocimum species from northern India.
- PubMed: Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.
- PubMed: Resistance to essential oils affects survival of Salmonella enterica serovars in growing and harvested basil.
- PubMed: Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and its possible mechanism of action.
- PubMed: [Study on the constituents of volatile oil from Ocimum basilicum].
- PubMed: Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.
- PubMed: Mechanism of action of antiinflammatory effect of fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn.
- PubMed: Comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by using different test methods.
- PubMed: Effects of Ocimum basilicum L. extract on experimental acute inflammation.
- PubMed: The main chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.
- PubMed: Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study.
- PubMed: Comparative essential oil composition of flowers, leavesand stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) used as herb.
- PubMed: Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.
- PubMed: Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.
- PubMed: Anthocyanin inheritance and instability in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).
- PubMed: Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.)
- PubMed: Synthesis of highly active juvenile hormone analogs, juvocimene I and II, from the oil of sweet basil,Ocimum basilicum L.
- PubMed: Protective effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis.
- PubMed: Soil bacteria elevate essential oil accumulation and emissions in sweet basil.
- PubMed: In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.
- PubMed: Investigations on the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.
- PubMed: Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.
- PubMed: Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).
- PubMed: Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.
- PubMed: Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.
- PubMed: Comparison of Field and Laboratory-Based Tests for Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to Repellents.
- PubMed: Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.
- PubMed: The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.
- PubMed: Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants acclimated to Benin on in vitro ruminal fermentation of Andropogon gayanus grass.
- PubMed: Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.
- PubMed: Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.
- PubMed: Evaluation of bioactivity of linalool-rich essential oils from Ocimum basilucum and Coriandrum sativum varieties.
- PubMed: Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.
- PubMed: Modulatory potential of clocimum oil on mouse skin papillomagenesis and the xenobiotic detoxication system.
- PubMed: Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of fatty acids of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil.
- PubMed: Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines.
- PubMed: Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.
- PubMed: The potential of use basil and rosemary essential oils as effective antibacterial agents.
- PubMed: The formulation of an effective topical antibacterial product containing Ocimum gratissimum leaf essential oil.
- PubMed: Content, composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of three basil genotypes as a function of harvesting.
- PubMed: Chemical and pharmacological studies on fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum.
- PubMed: The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).
- PubMed: Essential oils and their principal constituents as antimicrobial agents for synthetic packaging films.
- PubMed: Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.
- PubMed: Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity.
- PubMed: Evaluation of the leishmanicidal and cytotoxic potential of essential oils derived from ten colombian plants.
- PubMed: Chemical and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum species.
- PubMed: Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol.
- PubMed: Comparative evaluation of antiinflammatory potential of fixed oil of different species of Ocimum and its possible mechanism of action.
- PubMed: Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on vascular permeability and leucocytes migration.
- PubMed: Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.
- PubMed: Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of Ocimum sanctum seed oil and its possible mechanism of action.
- PubMed: 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.
- PubMed: Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.
- PubMed: Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.
- PubMed: Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).
- PubMed: Effective treatment of experimental acute otitis media by application of volatile fluids into the ear canal.
- PubMed: An investigation of the storage and biosynthesis of phenylpropenes in sweet basil.
- PubMed: Antifungal activity of peppermint and sweet basil essential oils and their major aroma constituents on some plant pathogenic fungi from the vapor phase.
- PubMed: Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.
- PubMed: Antibacterial activities of essential oils from eight Greek aromatic plants against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
- PubMed: Source-separated municipal solid waste compost application to Swiss chard and basil.
- PubMed: Rapid classification of basil chemotypes by various vibrational spectroscopy methods.
- PubMed: Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.
- PubMed: Application of high Cu compost to Swiss chard and basil.
- PubMed: An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.
- PubMed: Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes.
- PubMed: Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn.
- PubMed: Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.
- PubMed: [Phytochemical evaluation of essential oils, medicinal plants and their preparations].
- PubMed: The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens.
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against microorganisms deteriorating fruit juices.
- PubMed: Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).
- PubMed: Antimicrobial activities of the volatile oils of Ocimum bacilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) against some aerobic dental isolates.
- PubMed: Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.
- PubMed: Effect of essential oils on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in corn.
- PubMed: Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.
- PubMed: Larvicidal and antifeedant activity of some plant-derived compounds to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Limantriidae).
- PubMed: Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.
- PubMed: Dibutyrate derivatization of monoacylglycerols for the resolution of regioisomers of oleic, petroselinic, and cis-vaccenic acids.
- PubMed: Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
- PubMed: In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.
- PubMed: Juvocimenes: potent juvenile hormone mimics from sweet basil.